We removed the tracheas from sacrificed laboratory animals and subjected this tissue to multi-step chemical processing. This method allowed us to preserve the cartilage and reduce its antigenicity, thus creating a bioprosthesis very similar to the host tissue. By using allogeneic and xenogeneic prostheses so prepared, no signs of immune rejections were seen following heterotopic or orthotopic implantations. The transplanted cartilage remained stable for periods ranging up to 21 weeks in recipient rats, while partial morphologic integrity of the cartilage was seen up to 1 year in pigs. Reepithelialization of the transplant with ciliated epithelium was completed in all specimens 12-24 weeks following surgery. Segmental replacement of up to one third of the whole trachea was possible in rats, whereas similar segmental replacements failed in pigs. We also found that successful reconstruction of window-shaped defects was possible. We consider our tracheal bioprosthesis to be superior to cialit-preserved grafts and also to most other biological reconstruction procedures.