Change in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Adherence to the Cancer Prevention Lifestyle Guidelines in Hispanic/Latino Adults: Results from the HCHS/SOL Study

Cancer Res Commun. 2023 Oct 2;3(10):1981-1991. doi: 10.1158/2767-9764.CRC-23-0187.


Neighborhood conditions are dynamic; the association of changing neighborhood socioeconomic factors with cancer preventive behaviors remains unclear. We examined associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, gentrification, and change in income inequality with adherence to the American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention in The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). The HCHS/SOL enrolled 16,415 adults, ages 18–74 years, at baseline (2008–2011), from communities in the Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Geocoded baseline addresses were linked to the 2000 decennial Census and 5-year American Community Survey (2005–2009 and 2012–2016) tracts to operationalize neighborhood deprivation index (NDI), gentrification, and income inequality. Complex survey multinominal logistic regression models estimated the relative risk ratio (RRR) with overall guideline adherence level (low, moderate, high) and by components—diet, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol intake. Overall, 14%, 60%, and 26% of the population had low, moderate, and high ACS guideline adherence, respectively. NDI was negatively associated with risk of high (vs. low) guideline adherence [RRR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78–0.98], although attenuated after controlling for individual socioeconomic status (SES; RRR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80–1.00), and associated with lower adherence to BMI recommendations (low vs. moderate RRR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84–0.97; high RRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Gentrification was associated with higher likelihood of meeting the dietary recommendations (low vs. moderate RRR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.07), but not with overall adherence or individual components. Change in income inequality was not associated with outcomes. Neighborhood deprivation may be negatively associated with ACS guideline adherence among Hispanic/Latino adults.

Significance: This study provides new evidence on the link between neighborhood gentrification, changing income inequality and adoption and maintenance of cancer preventive behaviors in an understudied population in cancer research. We observed that while neighborhood deprivation may deter from healthy lifestyle behaviors, positive changes in neighborhood SES via the process of gentrification, may not influence lifestyle guideline adherence among Hispanic/Latino adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Social Class