Social and built neighborhood environments and sleep health: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Community and Surrounding Areas and Sueño Ancillary Studies

Sleep. 2024 Feb 8;47(2):zsad260. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsad260.


Study objectives: To test associations between neighborhood social, built, and ambient environment characteristics and multidimensional sleep health in Hispanic/Latino adults.

Methods: Data were from San Diego-based Hispanic/Latino adults mostly of Mexican heritage enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (N = 342). Home addresses were geocoded to ascertain neighborhood characteristics of greenness, walkability (density of intersections, retail spaces, and residences), socioeconomic deprivation (e.g. lower income, lower education), social disorder (e.g. vacant buildings, crime), traffic density, and air pollution (PM 2.5) in the Study of Latinos Communities and Surrounding Areas Study. Sleep dimensions of regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration were measured by self-report or actigraphy approximately 2 years later. Multivariable regression models accounting for study design (stratification and clustering) were used to examine associations of neighborhood variables with individual sleep dimensions and a multidimensional sleep health composite score.

Results: Neighborhood characteristics were not significantly associated with the multidimensional sleep health composite, and there were few significant associations with individual sleep dimensions. Greater levels of air pollution (B = 9.03, 95% CI: 1.16, 16.91) were associated with later sleep midpoint, while greater social disorder (B = -6.90, 95% CI: -13.12, -0.67) was associated with earlier sleep midpoint. Lower walkability was associated with more wake after sleep onset (B = -3.58, 95% CI: -7.07, -0.09).

Conclusions: Living in neighborhoods with lower walkability and greater air pollution was associated with worse sleep health, but otherwise findings were largely null. Future research should test these hypotheses in settings with greater variability and investigate mechanisms of these associations.

Keywords: residential segregation; sleep initiation and maintenance disorders; social determinants of health; socioeconomic factors; traffic-related pollution; walking.

MeSH terms

  • Hispanic or Latino*
  • Humans
  • Neighborhood Characteristics*
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Self Report
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders*
  • Sleep*
  • Social Determinants of Health