Estimating changes in antibiotic consumption with the introduction of doxycycline post-exposure prophylaxis in the United States

medRxiv [Preprint]. 2023 Sep 23:2023.09.20.23295787. doi: 10.1101/2023.09.20.23295787.


Doxycycline as post-exposure prophylaxis (doxy-PEP) reduces the risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis in studies of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) on HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and people living with HIV (PLWH)). Doxy-PEP is an important tool to address the increasing burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but there is concern that increased consumption of doxycycline may drive antimicrobial resistance. We estimated the expected increase in antibiotic use in the US under several doxy-PEP prescribing scenarios. We accounted for doses of antibiotics that may be averted due to the prevention of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis infections by doxy-PEP. Under a scenario of 75% adoption among the eligible population, with rates of consumption similar to the DoxyPEP trial population, monthly antibiotic consumption would increase by around 2.52 million doses, driven by doxy-PEP consumption of 2.58 million doses and less 62.1 thousand antibiotic doses that would otherwise have been used for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis treatment.

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