Assessment of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of a group of Turkish pediatric glycogen storage disease type 1b patients with varying clinical presentations and a novel mutation

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2023 Oct 5;36(11):1092-1099. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2023-0336. Print 2023 Nov 27.


Objectives: Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b is a multisystemic disease in which immune and infectious complications are present, different from GSD type 1a. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is often required in the management of neutropenia and inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, an alternative treatment option to G-CSF has been preferred, like empagliflozin. To report on the demographics, genotype, clinical presentation, management, and complications of pediatric patients with glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD 1b).

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical course of eight patients with GSD type 1b whose diagnosis was confirmed by molecular testing.

Results: The mean age at referral was four months. The diagnosis of GSD 1b was based on clinical and laboratory findings and supported by genetic studies. One patient presented with an atypical clinical finding in the form of hydrocephalus at the time of first admission. The first symptom was abscess formation on the scalp due to neutropenia in another patient. Other patients had hypoglycemia at the time of admission. All patients presented suffered from neutropenia, which was managed with G-CSF, except one. Hospitalizations for infections were frequent. One patient developed chronic diarrhea and severe infections, which have been brought under control with empagliflozin.

Conclusions: Neutropenia is an essential finding in GSD 1b and responsible for complications. The coexistence of hypoglycemia and neutropenia should bring to mind GSD 1b. Empagliflozin can be a treatment option for neutropenia, which is resistant to G-CSF treatment.

Keywords: empagliflozin; glycogen storage disease type 1b; hepatomegaly; neutropenia.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I* / complications
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I* / diagnosis
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I* / genetics
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia* / complications
  • Infant
  • Mutation
  • Neutropenia* / etiology
  • Neutropenia* / genetics
  • Retrospective Studies


  • empagliflozin
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor

Supplementary concepts

  • Glycogen Storage Disease IB