Associations between avocado intake and measures of glucose and insulin homeostasis in Hispanic individuals with and without type 2 diabetes: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2023 Dec;33(12):2428-2439. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2023.08.002. Epub 2023 Aug 18.


Background and aims: To investigate associations between avocado intake and glycemia in adults with Hispanic/Latino ancestry.

Methods and results: The associations of avocado intake with measures of insulin and glucose homeostasis were evaluated in a cross-sectional analysis of up to 14,591 Hispanic/Latino adults, using measures of: average glucose levels (hemoglobin A1c; HbA1c), fasting glucose and insulin, glucose and insulin levels after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and calculated measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and HOMA-%β), and insulinogenic index. Associations were assessed using multivariable linear regression models, which controlled for sociodemographic factors and health behaviors, and which were stratified by dysglycemia status. In those with normoglycemia, avocado intake was associated with a higher insulinogenic index (β = 0.17 ± 0.07, P = 0.02). In those with T2D (treated and untreated), avocado intake was associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; β = -0.36 ± 0.21, P = 0.02), and lower fasting glucose (β = -0.27 ± 0.12, P = 0.02). In the those with untreated T2D, avocado intake was additionally associated with HOMA-%β (β = 0.39 ± 0.19, P = 0.04), higher insulin values 2-h after an oral glucose load (β = 0.62 ± 0.23, P = 0.01), and a higher insulinogenic index (β = 0.42 ± 0.18, P = 0.02). No associations were observed in participants with prediabetes.

Conclusions: We observed an association of avocado intake with better glucose/insulin homeostasis, especially in those with T2D.

Keywords: Avocado; Diet; HbA1c; Insulin homeostasis; Postprandial; Type 2 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / diagnosis
  • Diet*
  • Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Persea*
  • Public Health


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Insulin