Premature ovarian insufficiency, early menopause, and induced menopause

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Jan;38(1):101823. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2023.101823. Epub 2023 Sep 27.


Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a condition in which there is a decline in ovarian function in women who are younger than 40 years resulting in a hypo-oestrogenic state with elevated gonadotrophins and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea. This leads to short term complications of menopausal symptoms and long-term effects on bone and cardiovascular health, cognition as well as the impact of reduced fertility and sexual function associated with this condition. It is managed by sex steroid replacement either with HRT or combined hormonal contraception until the age of natural menopause (51) and this can provide a beneficial role with both symptom control and minimising the long-term adverse effects associated with this condition. Women who undergo a menopause between 40 and 45 years are deemed to have an "early menopause". The limited data available for this group suggest that they also have an increased morbidity if not adequately treated with hormone therapy. As such, women who have an early menopause should be managed in a similar way to those with POI, with the recommendation that they should take HRT at least until the natural age of menopause. This is the same for induced menopause that is caused by medical or surgical treatment that impacts the ovaries. It is important to ensure early diagnosis and access to specialist care to help support and manage these patients to reduce the symptoms and risks of long-term complications. This review looks at the diagnosis, causes, short and long-term complications and management of POI, early and induced menopause.

Keywords: early menopause; hormone replacement therapy; induced menopause; premature menopause; premature ovarian insufficiency; surgical menopause.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amenorrhea / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopause
  • Menopause, Premature*
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency* / diagnosis
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency* / etiology
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency* / therapy