Validity, reliability, and cross-validation of a new questionnaire developed using the Theory of Planned Behavior: The Dating Violence Bystander Help-giving Intention Questionnaire (DVBHIQ)

Heliyon. 2023 Sep 1;9(9):e19706. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e19706. eCollection 2023 Sep.


The present study aimed to develop and psychometrically test a scale by using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) comprising two types of measurement (direct and belief-based [indirect]) to assess bystander help-giving intention to victims of dating violence among youth. A two-phase, mixed-method design was adopted. The primary source of the samples was five universities, each in the northern, central, southern, eastern, and outer islands regions of Taiwan. Phase I involved developing an instrument based on the TPB (n = 10) and pilot testing (n = 220). Phase II conducted the psychometric evaluation (n = 622). The study used item analysis, explanatory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, and cross-validation to examine the psychometric properties of the Dating Violence Bystander Help-giving Intention Questionnaire (DVBHIQ) with two types of measure (direct and belief-based). Explanatory factor analysis resulted in a four-factor solution (attitude/behavioral beliefs, subjective norms/normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control/control belief, and intention) of the direct and belief-based measures of the DVBHIQ, accounting for 72.67% and 76.62% of total variance respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis and cross-validation confirmed the proposed four-factor model and demonstrated good internal consistency reliability. The two types of DVBHIQ had good validity, reliability, and measurement invariance which may help address the core cognitive determinants for bystander help-giving intention. Healthcare providers (e.g., school nurses) could use the DVBHIQ to evaluate how bystander education programs affect youth and conduct related research in the future.

Keywords: Bystander help-giving intention; Dating violence; Instrument development.