Spatial analysis of leisure land uses in Tehran: Assessing inequity using the MARCOS method within a GIS framework

Heliyon. 2023 Sep 1;9(9):e19691. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e19691. eCollection 2023 Sep.


This study focuses on the spatial analysis of leisure land uses in metropolitan Tehran, specifically examining spatial equality. The combination of the Measurement of Alternatives and Ranking according to Compromise Solution method and Geographic Information System is employed to evaluate leisure needs based on multiple criteria. These criteria encompass recreational, entertainment, tourism, social services, cultural services, religious, sports factors, as well as parks and green spaces. The objectives of this research are to draw attention to recreation-related challenges in Tehran, provide insights for urban planners, understand the city's spatial status, ensure equitable facility distribution, and propose solutions aligned with residents' preferences for improved service provisions. The final map resulting from the MARCOS method reveals significant disparities in leisure facility accessibility between privileged and deprived districts. Notably, residents in the northern and central districts experience better living conditions compared to other areas. This study highlights the diverse needs of residents across districts, underscoring the importance of tailored service provisions. The findings hold implications for the Ministry of Interior, the Management and Planning Organization, and the Municipality of Tehran, guiding their planning strategies to enhance recreational spaces and promote spatial equality. By utilizing the research outcomes, these organizations can contribute to the improvement of leisure facilities and the overall well-being of Tehran's residents.

Keywords: Leisure land uses; MARCOS method; Spatial analysis; Spatial equality; Tehran.