Lung Organoid on a Chip: A New Ensemble Model for Preclinical Studies

Int J Stem Cells. 2024 Feb 28;17(1):30-37. doi: 10.15283/ijsc23090. Epub 2023 Oct 11.


The lung is a complex organ comprising a branched airway that connects the large airway and millions of terminal gas-exchange units. Traditional pulmonary biomedical research by using cell line model system have limitations such as lack of cellular heterogeneity, animal models also have limitations including ethical concern, race-to-race variations, and physiological differences found in vivo. Organoids and on-a-chip models offer viable solutions for these issues. Organoids are three-dimensional, self-organized construct composed of numerous cells derived from stem cells cultured with growth factors required for the maintenance of stem cells. On-a-chip models are biomimetic microsystems which are able to customize to use microfluidic systems to simulate blood flow in blood channels or vacuum to simulate human breathing. This review summarizes the key components and previous biomedical studies conducted on lung organoids and lung-on-a-chip models, and introduces potential future applications. Considering the importance and benefits of these model systems, we believe that the system will offer better platform to biomedical researchers on pulmonary diseases, such as emerging viral infection, progressive fibrotic pulmonary diseases, or primary or metastatic lung cancer.

Keywords: Lung; Microphysiological systems; Organoids; Pulmonary diseases.

Publication types

  • Review