Cardiac ventricular false tendons: A meta-analysis

Clin Anat. 2024 Jan;37(1):114-129. doi: 10.1002/ca.24116. Epub 2023 Oct 11.


Ventricular false tendons are fibromuscular structures that travel across the ventricular cavity. Left ventricular false tendons (LVFTs) have been examined through gross dissection and echocardiography. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the prevalence, morphology, and clinical importance of ventricular false tendons using a systematic review. In multiple studies, these structures have had a wide reported prevalence ranging from less than 1% to 100% of cases. This meta-analysis found the overall pooled prevalence of LVFTs to be 30.2%. Subgroup analysis indicated the prevalence to be 55.1% in cadaveric studies and 24.5% in living patients predominantly studied by echocardiography. Morphologically, left and right ventricular false tendons have been classified into several types based on their location and attachments. Studies have demonstrated false tendons have important clinical implications involving innocent murmurs, premature ventricular contractions, early repolarization, and impairment of systolic and diastolic function. Despite these potential complications, there is evidence demonstrating that the presence of false tendons can lead to positive clinical outcomes.

Keywords: anatomy; cardiac; clinical significance; imaging; interventional; prevalence; ventricular false tendons.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Relevance
  • Dissection
  • Echocardiography
  • Heart Defects, Congenital*
  • Heart Ventricles* / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans