Prognostic role of computed tomography analysis using deep learning algorithm in patients with chronic hepatitis B viral infection

Clin Mol Hepatol. 2023 Oct;29(4):1029-1042. doi: 10.3350/cmh.2023.0190. Epub 2023 Aug 29.


Background/aims: The prediction of clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is paramount for effective management. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of computed tomography (CT) analysis using deep learning algorithms in patients with CHB.

Methods: This retrospective study included 2,169 patients with CHB without hepatic decompensation who underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance between January 2005 and June 2016. Liver and spleen volumes and body composition measurements including subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and skeletal muscle indices were acquired from CT images using deep learning-based fully automated organ segmentation algorithms. We assessed the significant predictors of HCC, hepatic decompensation, diabetes mellitus (DM), and overall survival (OS) using Cox proportional hazard analyses.

Results: During a median follow-up period of 103.0 months, HCC (n=134, 6.2%), hepatic decompensation (n=103, 4.7%), DM (n=432, 19.9%), and death (n=120, 5.5%) occurred. According to the multivariate analysis, standardized spleen volume significantly predicted HCC development (hazard ratio [HR]=1.01, P=0.025), along with age, sex, albumin and platelet count. Standardized spleen volume (HR=1.01, P<0.001) and VAT index (HR=0.98, P=0.004) were significantly associated with hepatic decompensation along with age and albumin. Furthermore, VAT index (HR=1.01, P=0.001) and standardized spleen volume (HR=1.01, P=0.001) were significant predictors for DM, along with sex, age, and albumin. SAT index (HR=0.99, P=0.004) was significantly associated with OS, along with age, albumin, and MELD.

Conclusion: Deep learning-based automatically measured spleen volume, VAT, and SAT indices may provide various prognostic information in patients with CHB.

Keywords: Chronic hepatitis B; Diabetes mellitus; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver cirrhosis; Survival.

MeSH terms

  • Albumins
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / diagnostic imaging
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / etiology
  • Deep Learning*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic* / complications
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic* / diagnosis
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic* / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Liver Cirrhosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver Cirrhosis / etiology
  • Liver Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Liver Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Liver Neoplasms* / etiology
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*


  • Albumins