Two-center validation of assays for the detection of binding and neutralizing anti-factor VIII antibodies

Haemophilia. 2024 Jan;30(1):224-231. doi: 10.1111/hae.14885. Epub 2023 Oct 12.


Introduction: Patients with hemophilia A treated with coagulation Factor VIII (FVIII) products are at risk for developing anti-FVIII antibodies. The ABIRISK Consortium aimed to provide knowledge on the formation and detection of anti-drug antibodies against biopharmaceutical products, including FVIII. Accordingly, standardized and validated assays for the detection of binding (total) and neutralizing antibodies are needed.

Aim: Two-center validation of an ELISA for the detection of total FVIII-binding IgG-antibodies and Nijmegen-Bethesda assays for the quantification of FVIII-neutralizing antibodies according to consensus validation guidelines.

Methods: Validation of assays at both sites was done according to published recommendations and included preanalytics, the determination of key assay parameters, including cut-points, assay sensitivity, precision, and FVIII interference.

Results: The validated assays reproducibly detected FVIII-binding and -neutralizing antibodies with comparable performance in both laboratories. Floating screening cut-points were established for both assays. Determined mass-based sensitivity of both assays (all values ≤66 ng/mL) complied with the minimum sensitivity for the detection of anti-drug antibodies as recommended by the FDA (<100 ng/mL). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation did not exceed 25%. Assay validation further revealed that pre-analytical heat treatment led to potentially false-positive ELISA results, while up to 0.15 IU/mL, residual FVIII showed no significant impact. Overall, good agreement of results was found for patient samples analyzed at both study sites.

Conclusion: Comprehensive validation of different anti-FVIII-antibody assays in two laboratories gave novel insights into the impact of pre-analytical sample treatment as well as the comparability of test results generated by the use of methodically different assays.

Keywords: ELISA; Nijmegen-Bethesda-Assay; factor VIII; inhibitors; validation.

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Neutralizing*
  • Blood Coagulation Tests
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Factor VIII / therapeutic use
  • Hemophilia A* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Factor VIII
  • Immunoglobulin G