Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations of Novel Antibiotic Agents for Pediatric Infections: A Narrative Review

Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2023 Oct;24(8):703-715. doi: 10.1089/sur.2023.055. Epub 2023 Oct 13.


Background: Currently, the escalation of microbial resistance poses a significant global challenge. Children are more susceptible to develop infections and therefore are prescribed antibiotics more frequently. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics in pediatric patients can play a considerable role in developing microbial resistance. Accordingly, many policies, including research into new antibiotic agents have been recommended to combat microbial resistance. Recent developments in novel antibiotics have shown promising results against multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR) pathogens. However, as pediatric patients are typically excluded from the clinical trials of new medications, labeling and information about approved antibiotics should be improved. This study aimed to evaluate antibiotics having been introduced to the market in the last decade focusing on pediatric population. Methods: This study reviewed the published literatures on novel FDA-approved antibiotics released between 2010 and 2022. Results: Finally, seven newly approved antibiotics including ceftaroline fosamil, ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, ceftobiprole, imipenem-cilastatin-relebactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, and tedizolid were considered in the present review-article. All relevant data extracted from literatures, were discussed in different subtitles of "Pharmacology", "Mechanism of action", "Indication", "Dosage regimen and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties", "Dosage adjustment in renal/liver failure", "Resistance pattern", and "Adverse drug events". Conclusion: This study reviewed available data on seven new antibiotic agents and their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, with a particular focus on their use in pediatric patients. The information presented in this review will be useful for healthcare professionals in selecting appropriate antibiotics for pediatric patients and for researchers in achieving the ideal therapeutic regimens.

Keywords: antibacterial resistance; antibiotic agents; cephalosporins; pediatrics; sepsis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents* / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Azabicyclo Compounds / pharmacology
  • Cephalosporins* / pharmacology
  • Cephalosporins* / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Cephalosporins
  • Drug Combinations
  • Azabicyclo Compounds