Clinical Significance of Extracellular Vesicles in Prostate and Renal Cancer

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Sep 28;24(19):14713. doi: 10.3390/ijms241914713.


Extracellular vesicles (EVs)-including apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes-are released by almost all cell types and contain molecular footprints from their cell of origin, including lipids, proteins, metabolites, RNA, and DNA. They have been successfully isolated from blood, urine, semen, and other body fluids. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the predictive value of EVs in prostate and renal cancer. We also describe the findings supporting the use of EVs from liquid biopsies in stratifying high-risk prostate/kidney cancer and advanced disease, such as castration-resistant (CRPC) and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) as well as metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Assays based on EVs isolated from urine and blood have the potential to serve as highly sensitive diagnostic studies as well as predictive measures of tumor recurrence in patients with prostate and renal cancers. Overall, we discuss the biogenesis, isolation, liquid-biopsy, and therapeutic applications of EVs in CRPC, NEPC, and RCC.

Keywords: exosomes; liquid biopsies; prediction; therapeutic targeting; tumor progression.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell* / pathology
  • Clinical Relevance
  • Exosomes* / metabolism
  • Extracellular Vesicles* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Prostate / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant* / pathology