Myocardial Fibrosis in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Perspective from Fibroblasts

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Oct 2;24(19):14845. doi: 10.3390/ijms241914845.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited heart disease and the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. Mutations in genes that encode structural proteins of the cardiac sarcomere are the more frequent genetic cause of HCM. The disease is characterized by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, which is defined as the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen I and III, in the myocardium. The development of fibrotic tissue in the heart adversely affects cardiac function. In this review, we discuss the latest evidence on how cardiac fibrosis is promoted, the role of cardiac fibroblasts, their interaction with cardiomyocytes, and their activation via the TGF-β pathway, the primary intracellular signalling pathway regulating extracellular matrix turnover. Finally, we summarize new findings on profibrotic genes as well as genetic and non-genetic factors involved in the pathophysiology of HCM.

Keywords: TGF-β; cardiac fibroblast; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; myocardial fibrosis; myofibroblasts.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Fibrosis
  • Humans
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / metabolism