Anti-Osteoporotic Potential of Water Extract of Anethum graveolens L. Seeds

Nutrients. 2023 Oct 9;15(19):4302. doi: 10.3390/nu15194302.


Anethum graveolens L., known as European dill, is a versatile herb widely used in both traditional medicine and culinary practices. Despite its long-standing history, the potential impact of the water extract of A. graveolens seeds (WEAG) on bone health remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated the influence of WEAG on osteoclast differentiation and assessed its potential as an anti-osteoporotic agent. WEAG hindered osteoclast differentiation through the suppression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoclast-supporting cells and by directly targeting osteoclast precursor cells. WEAG significantly reduced the expression of key osteoclastogenic transcription factors, namely c-Fos and NFATc1, typically induced by RANKL in osteoclast precursors. This reduction was attributed to the suppression of both MAPKs and NF-κB pathways in response to RANKL. In vivo experiments further revealed that WEAG administration effectively reduces trabecular bone loss and weight gain triggered by ovariectomy, mimicking postmenopausal osteoporosis. Furthermore, our comprehensive phytochemical analysis of WEAG identified a range of phytochemical constituents, associated with bone health and weight regulation. Notably, we discovered a specific compound, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, within WEAG that exhibits anti-osteoclastogenic potential. Overall, this research elucidated the beneficial effects and mechanistic basis of WEAG on osteoclast differentiation and bone loss, indicating its potential as a viable alternative to address bone loss in conditions like postmenopause.

Keywords: Anethum graveolens L.; RANKL; osteoclastogenesis; osteoporosis; ovariectomy.

MeSH terms

  • Anethum graveolens* / metabolism
  • Bone Resorption* / drug therapy
  • Bone Resorption* / metabolism
  • Bone Resorption* / prevention & control
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • NFATC Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Osteoclasts
  • Osteogenesis
  • Ovariectomy
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology
  • RANK Ligand / metabolism


  • NFATC Transcription Factors
  • NF-kappa B
  • Phytochemicals
  • RANK Ligand