Carbon neutrality calls for renewable energies, and the efficient use of renewable energies requires energy storage mediums that enable the storage of excess energy and reuse after spatiotemporal reallocation. Compared with traditional energy storage technologies, mobile energy storage technologies have the merits of low cost and high energy conversion efficiency, can be flexibly located, and cover a large range from miniature to large systems and from high energy density to high power density, although most of them still face challenges or technical bottlenecks. In this review, we provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges of these emerging energy storage technologies (including rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical and dielectric capacitors). Innovative materials, strategies, and technologies are highlighted. Finally, the future directions are envisioned. We hope this review will advance the development of mobile energy storage technologies and boost carbon neutrality.
© 2023 The Authors.