Priorities and Progress in Gram-positive Bacterial Infection Research by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: A Narrative Review

Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Oct 16;77(Suppl 4):S295-S304. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad565.


The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) has prioritized infections caused by gram-positive bacteria as one of its core areas of emphasis. The ARLG Gram-positive Committee has focused on studies responding to 3 main identified research priorities: (1) investigation of strategies or therapies for infections predominantly caused by gram-positive bacteria, (2) evaluation of the efficacy of novel agents for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and (3) optimization of dosing and duration of antimicrobial agents for gram-positive infections. Herein, we summarize ARLG accomplishments in gram-positive bacterial infection research, including studies aiming to (1) inform optimal vancomycin dosing, (2) determine the role of dalbavancin in MRSA bloodstream infection, (3) characterize enterococcal bloodstream infections, (4) demonstrate the benefits of short-course therapy for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia, (5) develop quality of life measures for use in clinical trials, and (6) advance understanding of the microbiome. Future studies will incorporate innovative methodologies with a focus on interventional clinical trials that have the potential to change clinical practice for difficult-to-treat infections, such as MRSA bloodstream infections.

Keywords: antibacterial agents; antibacterial resistance; gram-positive bacterial infections; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections* / drug therapy
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections* / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Leadership
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus*
  • Quality of Life
  • Sepsis* / drug therapy


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents