A gB nanoparticle vaccine elicits a protective neutralizing antibody response against EBV

Cell Host Microbe. 2023 Nov 8;31(11):1882-1897.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2023.09.011. Epub 2023 Oct 16.


Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a global public health concern, as it is known to cause multiple diseases while also being etiologically associated with a wide range of epithelial and lymphoid malignancies. Currently, there is no available prophylactic vaccine against EBV. gB is the EBV fusion protein that mediates viral membrane fusion and participates in host recognition, making it critical for EBV infection in both B cells and epithelial cells. Here, we present a gB nanoparticle, gB-I53-50 NP, that displays multiple copies of gB. Compared with the gB trimer, gB-I53-50 NP shows improved structural integrity and stability, as well as enhanced immunogenicity in mice and non-human primate (NHP) preclinical models. Immunization and passive transfer demonstrate a robust and durable protective antibody response that protects humanized mice against lethal EBV challenge. This vaccine candidate demonstrates significant potential in preventing EBV infection, providing a possible platform for developing prophylactic vaccines for EBV.

Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; gB; nanoparticle vaccine; neutralizing antibody; passive protection.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Antibody Formation
  • CHO Cells
  • Cricetinae
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections* / prevention & control
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • Mice
  • Vaccines*


  • Vaccines
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral