Inherited thrombocytopenia (IT) is a group of hereditary disorders characterized by a reduced platelet count as the main clinical manifestation, and often with abnormal platelet function, which can subsequently lead to impaired hemostasis. In the past decades, humanized mouse models (HMMs), that are mice engrafted with human cells or genes, have been widely used in different research areas including immunology, oncology, and virology. With advances of the development of immunodeficient mice, the engraftment, and reconstitution of functional human platelets in HMM permit studies of occurrence and development of platelet disorders including IT and treatment strategies. This article mainly reviews the development of humanized mice models, the construction methods, research status, and problems of using humanized mice for the in vivo study of human thrombopoiesis.
Keywords: Hematopoietic stem cells; humanized mouse; inherited thrombocytopenia; megakaryocyte; platelet.
Humanized mouse models (HMMs) refer to immunodeficient mice that have been used for the investigation of human hematopoiesis and immunity for years. With engrafted human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the differentiation process of HSCs and re-construction of platelets can be monitored in the mice. Until now, several strains of HMMs have been used in the studies of inherited thrombocytopenia (IT), a genetic disorder associated with low platelet count in the blood. In this study, we reviewed the development of these HMMs in IT studies, compared the different sources of HSCs transplanted into HMMs and summarize the strategies of HSC transplantation in HMMs. The Kit−/− immunodeficient mice showed effectively long-term and stable implantation of human HSC without irradiation and higher implantation levels, and they also support multilinear differentiation of human HSC, such as platelets and red blood cells. The source and count of HSCs and the transplantation strategy may also impact the result. This study provides a basis information for HMMs used in IT and will help other investigators in this field choosing the right research plan.