Teprotumumab-Related Adverse Events in Thyroid Eye Disease: A Multicenter Study

Ophthalmology. 2024 Apr;131(4):458-467. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.10.018. Epub 2023 Oct 16.


Purpose: To assess the duration, incidence, reversibility, and severity of adverse events (AEs) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED) treated with teprotumumab.

Design: Multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study.

Participants: Patients with TED of all stages and activity levels treated with at least 4 infusions of teprotumumab.

Methods: Patients were treated with teprotumumab between February 2020 and October 2022 at 6 tertiary centers. Adverse event metrics were recorded at each visit.

Main outcome measures: The primary outcomes measure was AE incidence and onset. Secondary outcome measures included AE severity, AE reversibility, AE duration, proptosis response, clinical activity score (CAS) reduction, and Gorman diplopia score improvement.

Results: The study evaluated 131 patients. Proptosis improved by 2 mm or more in 77% of patients (101/131), with average proptosis improvement of 3.0 ± 2.1 mm and average CAS reduction of 3.2 points. Gorman diplopia score improved by at least 1 point for 50% of patients (36/72) with baseline diplopia. Adverse events occurred in 81.7% of patients (107/131). Patients experienced a median of 4 AEs. Most AEs were mild (74.0% [97/131]), 28.2% (37/131) were moderate, and 8.4% (11/131) were severe. Mean interval AE onset was 7.9 weeks after the first infusion. Mean resolved AE duration was 17.6 weeks. Forty-six percent of patients (60/131) demonstrated at least 1 persistent AE at last follow-up. Mean follow-up was 70.2 ± 38.5 weeks after the first infusion. The most common type of AEs was musculoskeletal (58.0% [76/131]), followed by gastrointestinal (38.2% [50/131]), skin (38.2% [50/131]), ear and labyrinth (30.5% [40/131]), nervous system (20.6% [27/131]), metabolic (15.3% [20/131]), and reproductive system (12.2% [16/131]). Sixteen patients (12.2%) discontinued therapy because of AEs, including hearing loss (n = 4), inflammatory bowel disease flare (n = 2), hyperglycemia (n = 1), muscle spasms (n = 1), and multiple AEs (n = 8).

Conclusions: Adverse events are commonly reported while receiving teprotumumab treatment. Most are mild and reversible; however, serious AEs can occur and may warrant treatment cessation. Treating physicians should inform patients about AE risk, properly screen patients before treatment, monitor patients closely throughout therapy, and understand how to manage AEs should they develop.

Financial disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found in the Footnotes and Disclosures at the end of this article.

Keywords: Adverse events; Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R); Tepezza; Teprotumumab; Thyroid eye disease.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized*
  • Diplopia / chemically induced
  • Exophthalmos*
  • Graves Ophthalmopathy* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies


  • teprotumumab
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized