A phantom for targeted endomyocardial biopsy training

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2023 Nov;102(6):1109-1113. doi: 10.1002/ccd.30862. Epub 2023 Oct 19.


Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) of the right ventricular (RV) septal surface during cardiac catheterization is the standard method to assess cardiac allograft rejection, heart failure, or inflammatory cardiomyopathies. We developed methodology using a three-dimensional (3D) printed phantom to provide proof of concept for using biplane overlay technology for targeted EMB. A standard bioptome and steerable sheath were used to discern feasibility of biopsy for seven regions of the RV septum guided by 3D overlay. This novel biopsy phantom can help train operators in biopsy techniques, and biplane overlay technology has the potential to advance targeted EMB in transplant and cardiomyopathy populations.

Keywords: 3D printing; cardiac biopsy; heart transplant; overlay technology; training phantom.

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy / methods
  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Cardiomyopathies* / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Failure* / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Treatment Outcome