The COVID-19 pandemic exposed limitations of conventional antibodies as therapeutics, including high cost, limited potency, ineffectiveness against new viral variants, and primary reliance on injection-only delivery. Nanobodies are single-domain antibodies with therapeutic potentials. We discovered three anti-SARS-CoV-2 nanobodies, named Nanosota-2, -3, and -4, from an immunized alpaca. Nanosota-2 is super potent against prototypic SARS-CoV-2, Nanosota-3 is highly potent against the omicron variant, and Nanosota-4 is effective against both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. In addition to their super potency and combined broad antiviral spectrum, these nanobodies are cost-effective, can be easily adapted to new viral variants through phage display, and can potentially be administered as inhalers. The Nanosota series are powerful therapeutic candidates to combat circulating SARS-CoV-2 and prepare for possible future coronavirus pandemics.
Keywords: ACE2; SARS-CoV-1; SARS-CoV-2; animal model; cryo-EM; omicron; receptor-binding domain; single-domain antibody from camelids; spike protein; virus neutralization.