Understanding the complex genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying glaucoma

Mol Aspects Med. 2023 Dec:94:101220. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2023.101220. Epub 2023 Oct 17.


Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Currently the only effective treatment for glaucoma is to reduce the intraocular pressure, which can halt the progression of the disease. Highlighting the importance of identifying individuals at risk of developing glaucoma and those with early-stage glaucoma will help patients receive treatment before sight loss. However, some cases of glaucoma do not have raised intraocular pressure. In fact, glaucoma is caused by a variety of different mechanisms and has a wide range of different subtypes. Understanding other risk factors, the underlying mechanisms, and the pathology of glaucoma might lead to novel treatments and treatment of underlying diseases. In this review we present the latest research into glaucoma including the genetics and molecular basis of the disease.

Keywords: Genetics; Glaucoma; Intraocular pressure; Mitochondria; Optic nerve.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Glaucoma* / genetics
  • Glaucoma* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / genetics