Hysterectomy and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Glob Epidemiol. 2023 Oct 5:6:100122. doi: 10.1016/j.gloepi.2023.100122. eCollection 2023 Dec.


Background: Incidence rates of thyroid cancer have increased. Recent studies findings suggest that women who underwent a hysterectomy have an elevated relative risk of thyroid cancer. The aim of our meta-analysis is to summarize the evidence about the association between hysterectomy and thyroid cancer risk.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus database were searched for studies published up to 5 September 2023. The PRISMA statement was followed. Heterogeneity was explored with Q statistic and the I2 statistic. Publication bias was assessed with Begg's and Egger's tests.

Results: Sixteen studies met the criteria. The pooled analysis showed a significantly 64% increment of thyroid cancer risk in association with any hysterectomy (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.48-1.81; I2 = 28.68%, p = 0.156). Hysterectomy without oophorectomy was a stronger predictor of risk than hysterectomy with oophorectomy. The pooled analysis of data regarding hysterectomy without oophorectomy showed a statistically significant increment of thyroid cancer risk by 59%. Hysterectomy with oophorectomy was associated with an increase of thyroid cancer risk of 39% (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.16-1.67; I2 = 42.10%, p = 0.049). Significant publication bias was not detected.

Conclusions: Our findings help with decision making around these surgeries.

Publication types

  • Review