Hoarseness as a Predictor for Pulmonary Arterial Aneurysm and Extrinsic Left Main Coronary Artery Compression in Patients with Severe Pulmonary Hypertension

Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2023 Oct;51(7):447-453. doi: 10.5543/tkda.2023.63828.

Abstract

Objective: Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement is a common finding in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and may be associated with extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA-Co) and/or compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve resulting in hoarseness named as Ortner syndrome (OS). In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic impact of OS in predicting the PA aneurysm and significant LMCA-Co in patients with PH.

Methods: Our study population comprised retrospectively evaluated 865 with PH confirmed with the right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2022. Patients underwent coronary angiography due to several indications, including the presence of a PA aneurysm on echocardiography, angina symptoms, or the incidental discovery of LMCA-Co on multidetector computed tomography. The LMCA-Co is defined as diameter stenosis ³ 50% in reference distal LMCA segment on two consecutive angiographic planes.

Results: The LMCA-Co and hoarseness were documented in 3.8% and 4.3% of patients with PH, respectively. Increasing PA diameter was significantly associated with worse clinical, hemodynamic, laboratory, and echocardiographic parameters. The receiver operating curves revealed that the PA diameter >41 mm was cutoff for hoarseness (AUC: 0.834; sensitivity 69%, specificity 84%, and negative predictive value 98%), and PA diameter >35 mm was cutoff for LMCA-Co >50% (AUC: 0.794; sensitivity 89%, specificity 58 %, and negative predictive value 99%). An odds ratio of hoarseness for LMCA-Co was 83.3 (95% confidence interval; 36.5-190, P < 0.001) with 3.2% sensitivity, 98.7% specificity, and 59% positive and 98% negative predictive values.

Conclusion: In this study, a close relationship was found between the presence of hoarseness and the probability of extrinsic LMCA-Co by enlarged PA in patients with severe PH. Therefore, the risk of LMCA-Co should be taken into account in patients with PH suffering from hoarseness.

MeSH terms

  • Aneurysm* / complications
  • Coronary Angiography / methods
  • Coronary Stenosis* / complications
  • Coronary Vessels
  • Hoarseness / complications
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary* / complications
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary* / diagnostic imaging
  • Pulmonary Artery / diagnostic imaging
  • Retrospective Studies