Aquaculture is a highly important and expanding industry in Southeast Asia (SEA). An upcoming problem is the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens due to the unchecked use of antibiotics and human clinical practices. This review focused insight into the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and strategies from SEA aquaculture based on the original research publication over the period 2002 to 2023. Amongst the 11 SEA countries, the most AMR report has come from Vietnam, Malaysia, and Thailand, respectively. The AMR found in SEA aquaculture were classified into 17 drug classes. The most reported AMR are aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, (fluoro)quinolones, tetracycline, sulpha group and multi-drug. Beta-lactams, tetracycline, sulpha group are reported in each country with the reported frequencies higher than 40 %. Escherichia coli, Aeromonas and Vibrio are the most widely and frequently reported ARB in SEA aquaculture. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexes for the sample containing multiple bacterial isolates were generally low, while the medium numbers of MAR indexes for the typical bacteria species were higher than 0.2 and showed higher MAR levels than the global mean. Most of the detected ARGs are related to beta-lactams, tetracycline, sulpha group, and aminoglycosides. Amongst the beta-lactam resistance genes, blaTEM, and blaSHV are the most frequently detected. Almost all the available information of antibiotics, ARB and ARGs in SEA aquaculture was consistent with the global scale analysis. In addition, factors that contribute to the development and spread of AMR in SEA aquaculture were discussed. Moreover, the national action plan to combat AMR in SEA countries and the available technologies that already applied in the SEA aquaculture are also included in this review. Such findings underline the need for synergistic efforts from scientists, engineers, policy makers, government managers, entrepreneurs, and communities to manage and reduce the burden of AMR in aquaculture of SEA countries.
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Aquaculture; Multiple antibiotic resistance; One-Health; Southeast Asia.
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