Neoplasms in Struma Ovarii: A Review

Endocr Pathol. 2023 Dec;34(4):455-460. doi: 10.1007/s12022-023-09789-7. Epub 2023 Oct 21.


Struma ovarii is a well-known ovarian teratoma made up of benign thyroid tissue. These lesions demonstrate variable, normal architecture and normal thyroid immunohistochemical staining with positivity for TTF1, PAX8, and thyroglobulin. Though most are benign, some of these lesions can also present with a malignant component. Within this article, we review the most common diagnostic malignancies including papillary thyroid carcinoma, strumal carcinoid, highly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma, and other thyroid carcinomas. We additionally review the use of TTF1 staining to assist in differentiating these lesions from surrounding gynecologic epithelium, which is imperative in making such diagnoses. In highlighting these entities, we hope to provide practicing pathologists with an effective and concise review of these lesions to assist in more challenging cases of struma ovarii.

Keywords: Benign thyroid tissue; Papillary thyroid carcinoma; Struma ovarii; Strumal carcinoid; TTF1.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoid Tumor* / diagnosis
  • Carcinoid Tumor* / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Struma Ovarii* / diagnosis
  • Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
  • Thyroid Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Thyroid Neoplasms* / pathology