Five cases of localized cystic dilatation of a side branch of the main pancreatic duct due to a new entity ("ductectatic" mucinous cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma) are reported. The dilated duct was widely covered by epithelium indistinguishable from that of mucinous cystadenoma (n = 4) or cystadenocarcinoma (n = 1) of the pancreas. All lesions were located in the uncinate process and were about 3 cm in size. On computed tomographic scans and sonograms, lesions were difficult to distinguish from simple cyst of the pancreas unless lobulated or irregular margins were demonstrated. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) or operative pancreatography clearly demonstrated characteristic findings: localized, prominent cystic dilatation of a side branch of the main pancreatic duct with grape-like clusters or pear-shaped pools of contrast material associated with filling defects of various sizes. When a cystic lesion is noted in the uncinate process of the pancreas, ERP is mandatory to confirm or rule out this potentially or overtly malignant disease.