Sex-based differences in left ventricular assist device clinical outcomes

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2024 Feb;103(2):376-381. doi: 10.1002/ccd.30892. Epub 2023 Oct 23.


Background: Heart failure (HF) continues to be a significant public health issue, posing a heightened risk of morbidity and mortality for both genders. Despite the widespread use of left ventricular assist device (LVAD), the influence of gender differences on clinical outcomes following implantation remains unclear.

Objectives: We investigated the impact of gender differences on readmission rates and other outcomes following LVAD implantation in patients admitted with advanced HF.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who underwent LVAD implantation for advanced HF between 2014 and 2020, using the Nationwide Readmissions Database. Our study cohort was divided into male and female patients. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission (30-dr), while secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, length of stay (LOS), procedural complication rates, and periadmission rates. Multivariate linear, Cox, and logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: During the study period, 11,492 patients with advanced HF who had LVAD placement were identified. Of these, 22% (n = 2532) were females and 78% (n = 8960) were males. The mean age was 53.9 ± 10.8 years for females and 56.3 ± 10.5 years for males (adjusted Wald test, p < 0.01). Readmissions were higher in females (21% vs. 17%, p = 0.02) when compared to males. Cox regression analysis showed higher readmission events (hazard ratio: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.52, p = 0.03) in females when compared to males. Inpatient mortality, LOS, and most procedural complication rates were not statistically significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05, all).

Conclusion: Women experienced higher readmission rates and were more likely to be readmitted multiple times after LVAD implantation when compared to their male counterparts. However, there were no significant sex-based differences in inpatient mortality, LOS, and nearly all procedural complication rates. These findings suggest that female patients may require closer monitoring and targeted interventions to reduce readmission rates.

Keywords: heart failure; left ventricular assist device; length of stay; mortality; readmission; utilization; women.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Heart Failure* / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure* / etiology
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Heart-Assist Devices* / adverse effects
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Readmission
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Treatment Outcome