Recent Updates on Tinnitus Management

J Audiol Otol. 2023 Oct;27(4):181-192. doi: 10.7874/jao.2023.00416. Epub 2023 Oct 10.


In this comprehensive review, we discuss recent updates on tinnitus evaluation and treatment. Tinnitus evaluation commences with comprehensive medical history taking and audiological evaluation, which can provide valuable insight into the nature and extent of auditory disturbances. Additionally, tinnitus evaluation includes investigation of psychosomatic comorbidities to determine the intricate interplay between psychological factors and tinnitus perception. Various therapeutic approaches are available to minimize the burden of tinnitus. Cognitive behavioral therapy reshapes negative thought patterns and behaviors that are closely associated with tinnitus-induced distress. Acceptance and commitment therapy fosters mindfulness and value-aligned actions to address emotional effects. Tinnitus retraining therapy combines counseling and sound therapy for habituation. Tailor-made notched music therapy offers customized auditory experiences for symptom relief. Hearing aids and cochlear implants compensate for hearing loss and associated stress. Both neuromodulation and neurofeedback may be potentially useful. The role of pharmacotherapy and dietary supplements remains uncertain. Physiotherapy and head-neck manipulation relieve tinnitus associated with orofacial factors. Virtual reality, smartphone applications, and photobiomodulation may serve as novel therapeutic avenues. Although promising interventions are available, further research is warranted to confirm their effectiveness and long-term effects.

Keywords: Cognitive behavioral therapy; Counseling; Drug therapy; Hearing aids; Neurofeedback; Tinnitus.

Publication types

  • Review