Despite the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, people are still dying from HIV-related causes, many of whom are children, and a protective vaccine or cure is needed to end the HIV pandemic. Understanding the nature and activation states of immune cell subsets during infection will provide insights into the immunologic milieu associated with viremia suppression that can be harnessed via therapeutic strategies to achieve a functional cure, but these are understudied in pediatric subjects. We evaluated humoral and adaptive host immunity associated with suppression of viremia in rhesus macaques infected soon after birth with a pathogenic SHIV. The results from our study provide insights into the immune cell subsets and functions associated with viremia control in young macaques that may translate to pediatric subjects for the design of future anti-viral strategies in HIV-1-infected infants and children and contribute to an understudied area of HIV-1 pathogenesis in pediatric subjects.
Keywords: cytokine profiling; macaque BCR sequencing; macaque TCR sequencing; neonatal SHIV infection; single-cell transcriptomics; viral persistence; viremia control.