Effectiveness of Maternal mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination During Pregnancy Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations in Infants Aged <6 Months During SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Predominance - 20 States, March 9, 2022-May 31, 2023

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 Sep 29;72(39):1057-1064. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7239a3.


Infants aged <6 months are not eligible for COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccination during pregnancy has been associated with protection against infant COVID-19-related hospitalization. The Overcoming COVID-19 Network conducted a case-control study during March 9, 2022-May 31, 2023, to evaluate the effectiveness of maternal receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine dose (vaccine effectiveness [VE]) during pregnancy against COVID-19-related hospitalization in infants aged <6 months and a subset of infants aged <3 months. VE was calculated as (1 - adjusted odds ratio) x 100% among all infants aged <6 months and <3 months. Case-patients (infants hospitalized for COVID-19 outside of birth hospitalization and who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result) and control patients (infants hospitalized for COVID-19-like illness with a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result) were compared. Odds ratios were determined using multivariable logistic regression, comparing the odds of receipt of a maternal COVID-19 vaccine dose (completion of a 2-dose vaccination series or a third or higher dose) during pregnancy with maternal nonvaccination between case- and control patients. VE of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against COVID-19-related hospitalization was 35% (95% CI = 15%-51%) among infants aged <6 months and 54% (95% CI = 32%-68%) among infants aged <3 months. Intensive care unit admissions occurred in 23% of all case-patients, and invasive mechanical ventilation was more common among infants of unvaccinated (9%) compared with vaccinated mothers (1%) (p = 0.02). Maternal vaccination during pregnancy provides some protection against COVID-19-related hospitalizations among infants, particularly those aged <3 months. Expectant mothers should remain current with COVID-19 vaccination to protect themselves and their infants from hospitalization and severe outcomes associated with COVID-19.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Mothers
  • Pregnancy
  • RNA, Messenger, Stored
  • SARS-CoV-2*
  • Vaccination


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • RNA, Messenger, Stored