Stainability and translucency of potassium aluminum sulfate applied computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing materials after coffee thermocycling

J Esthet Restor Dent. 2024 Mar;36(3):477-483. doi: 10.1111/jerd.13154. Epub 2023 Oct 25.


Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of potassium aluminum sulfate (alum) application on the stainability and translucency of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials after coffee thermocycling (CTC).

Materials and methods: Disk-shaped specimens (Ø10 × 1 mm; N = 200) were fabricated by using additively (Crowntec [CT] and Varseo Smile Crown Plus [VS]) and subtractively manufactured (Brilliant Crios [RCR], CEREC Block [FC], and Vita Enamic [VE]) CAD-CAM materials and polished. All specimens were randomly divided into two groups as alum applied and control (n = 10). All specimens were then subjected to CTC (10,000 cycles at 5-55°C) and color coordinates were measured at each time interval. Color differences (ΔE00 ) and relative translucency parameters (RTPs) were calculated and the data were statistically analyzed (a = 0.05).

Results: Among tested time intervals, alum applied specimens had their lowest ΔE00 after alum application (p ≤ 0.006), except for FC (p = 0.177). In addition, alum applied RCR had lower ΔE00 values than its control specimens (p = 0.029). Alum applied specimens had their lowest RTP after CTC (p < 0.001) and alum application decreased the RTP of CT (p = 0.010). CTC reduced the RTP of all materials in control groups (p < 0.001). Alum applied CT had higher RTP than its control specimens (p = 0.049).

Conclusions: Alum application's effect on color change varied depending on the material and alum mostly resulted in clinically acceptable changes in translucency. CTC led to unacceptable color and translucency changes based on previously reported threshold values.

Clinical significance: Optical properties of CAD-CAM materials and the sustainability of these properties over time is critical for longevity. Alum may improve the color stability of reinforced composite resin when subjected to long-term coffee consumption.

Keywords: CAD-CAM; coffee thermocycling; potassium aluminum sulfate; stainability; translucency.

MeSH terms

  • Alum Compounds*
  • Ceramics
  • Coffee*
  • Color
  • Computer-Aided Design
  • Dental Porcelain*
  • Materials Testing
  • Surface Properties


  • Dental Porcelain
  • Coffee
  • aluminum sulfate
  • Alum Compounds