Post COVID-19 complications and follow up biomarkers

Nanoscale Adv. 2023 Sep 15;5(21):5705-5716. doi: 10.1039/d3na00342f. eCollection 2023 Oct 24.


Millions of people were infected by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic, which left a huge burden on the care of post COVID-19 survivors around the globe. The self-reported COVID-19 symptoms were experienced by an estimated 1.3 million people in the United Kingdom (2% of the population), and these symptoms persisted for about 4 weeks from the beginning of the infection. The symptoms most frequently reported were exhaustion, shortness of breath, muscular discomfort, joint pain, headache, cough, chest pain, cognitive impairment, memory loss, anxiety, sleep difficulties, diarrhea, and a decreased sense of smell and taste in post-COVID-19 affected people. The post COVID-19 complications were frequently related to the respiratory, cardiac, nervous, psychological and musculoskeletal systems. The lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, brain and other organs had been impaired by hypoxia and inflammation in post COVID-19 individuals. The upregulation of substance "P" (SP) and various cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and chemokine C-C motif ligand 3 (CCL3) has muddled respiratory, cardiac, neuropsychiatric, dermatological, endocrine, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, renal and genitourinary complications in post COVID-19 people. To prevent these complications from worsening, it was therefore important to study how these biomarkers were upregulated and block their receptors.

Publication types

  • Review