Impact of Trinal Histological Glandular Differentiation Grade on the Prognosis of Patients with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: a Multicenter Retrospective Study

J Gastrointest Surg. 2023 Dec;27(12):2780-2786. doi: 10.1007/s11605-023-05852-0. Epub 2023 Oct 26.


Introduction: It is unclear whether the histological glandular differentiation (HGD) score that evaluates the tumor grade of two dominant components is prognostic for survival in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).

Method: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathologic data of 235 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed ICC following hepatectomy at 5 university hospitals in the Kansai region of Japan.

Results: Survival was statistically significantly stratified by trinal HGD grade (p < 0.05). Median disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with high HGD grade was significantly shorter compared with moderate HGD grade (13.0 vs 31.2 months, respectively; p = 0.004). By Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, HGD grade had the fifth-highest hazard ratio (HR = 1.77, p = 0.002) for DFS after vascular and/or biliary invasion, extrahepatic invasion, lymph node metastasis and multiple tumors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed four predictors of early recurrence after hepatectomy (lymph node metastasis: odds ratio [OR] = 3.74, p = 0.001; tumor size > 50 mm: OR = 2.80, p = 0.002; HGD grade, high: OR = 2.11, p = 0.012; and vascular or biliary tract invasion: OR = 2.11, p = 0.048).

Conclusion: Trinal HGD grade had a significant prognostic impact on the survival of patients with ICC after radical hepatectomy.

Keywords: Biliary tract neoplasms; Cholangiocarcinoma; Hepatectomy; Histological glandular differentiation; Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Bile Duct Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / surgery
  • Cholangiocarcinoma*
  • Hepatectomy
  • Humans
  • Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies