Prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment in adults with diabetes in the United States

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2023 Nov:205:110976. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2023.110976. Epub 2023 Oct 25.


Background: Limited evidence exists about the prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in individuals with diabetes in the U.S. We aimed to address such knowledge gaps using a nationally representative study dataset.

Method: We conducted a secondary analysis from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (1996-2018). The sample for examining the prevalence of MCI was14,988, with 4192 (28.0%) having diabetes, while the sample for the incidence was 21,824, with 1534 (28.0%) having diabetes.

Results: Participants with diabetes had a higher prevalence of MCI than those without diabetes (19.9 % vs. 14.8 %; odds ratio [95 % confidence interval] (OR[95 %CI]): 1.468 [1.337, 1.611], p <.001). The incidence of MCI in participants with/without newly diagnosed diabetes was 42.9 % vs. 31.6 % after a mean 10-year follow-up, with the incidence rate ratio (IRR) [95 %CI] (1.314 [1.213, 1.424], p <.001). Newly diagnosed diabetes was associated with elevated risks of MCI compared with non-diabetes, with the uncontrolled hazard ratio (HR) [95 %CI] (1.498 [1.405, 1.597], p <.001).

Conclusions: Using a nationally representative study data in the U.S., participants with diabetes had a higher prevalence and incidence of MCI than those without diabetes. Findings show the importance of developing interventions tailored to the needs of individuals with diabetes and cognitive impairment.

Keywords: Clinical; Cognition impairment; Complications of diabetes; Epidemiology: prevalence estimation; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / epidemiology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / psychology
  • Dementia* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Prevalence
  • United States / epidemiology