Exogenous Supplementation with DAO Enzyme in Women with Fibromyalgia: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

J Clin Med. 2023 Oct 10;12(20):6449. doi: 10.3390/jcm12206449.


Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain, muscle tension, joint mobility loss, and several psychological symptoms severely affecting patient well-being. Histamine is naturally degraded in the small intestine by diamine oxidase (DAO). Hereditary or acquired DAO deficiency causes extracellular histamine accumulation, leading to symptoms similar to those of individuals diagnosed with FM. Thus, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of adding DAO supplementation for 8 weeks to their standard therapy. We randomly assigned 100 women with FM (age: 33-61 years) to the supplementation and control groups. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and intensity scales were applied for a series of clinical symptoms together with the Bristol scale to assess the added value of DAO supplementation. Patients in both groups were receiving complete pharmacological support but some differences in the number of subjects receiving analgesics, antidepressants, and anxiolytics was noted. Patients in both study groups experienced favorable changes during the evaluation period as indicated by their final FIQ and PCS scores, particularly in the DAO group in the latter questionnaire. Qualitatively, the patients assigned to the DAO treatment group had lower scores for fatigue, anxiety, depression, burning and for rumination, magnification, and helplessness.

Keywords: DAO supplementation; diamine oxidase; fibromyalgia; histamine intolerance.