Transcriptional Activity of Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and Tissue Metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) Genes as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Heart Failure Due to Ischemic Heart Disease

Biomedicines. 2023 Oct 13;11(10):2776. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines11102776.


The most common cause of heart failure (HF) is coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the transcriptional activity of the metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1) genes in a study group of patients with HF due to CAD and in the control group, as well as assess the transcriptional activity of the examined genes, taking into account the number of affected coronary arteries and the severity of heart failure. The study group consisted of a total of 150 (100%) patients. The material for the study was peripheral blood, and molecular tests were performed using the quantitative QRT-PCR technique. The transcriptional activity of the MMP-9 gene was significantly higher in the group of patients with CAD and HF. It was also significantly higher with the progression of heart failure. TIMP-1 gene transcriptional activity was significantly lower with the advancement of heart failure. The transcriptional activity of the MMP-9 and TIMP-1 genes differentiated the examined patients. The severity of HF, and a significant increase in the QRT-PCR transcriptional activity of the MMP-9 gene with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of the TIMP-1 gene, makes them useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in clinical practice.

Keywords: coronary artery disease; genes; heart failure.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.