Prevalence Rates of Arterial Hypertension According to the Threshold Criteria of 140/90 or 130/80 mmHg and Associated Cardiometabolic and Renal Factors: SIMETAP-HTN Study

Medicina (Kaunas). 2023 Oct 17;59(10):1846. doi: 10.3390/medicina59101846.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Arterial hypertension (HTN) is the leading preventable cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) and death from all causes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of HTN diagnosed according to the threshold diagnostic criteria 130/80 mmHg and 140/90 mmHg, to compare blood pressure (BP) control, and to evaluate their associations with cardiovascular diseases and cardiometabolic and renal risk factors. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in primary care with a population-based random sample: 6588 people aged 18.0-102.8 years. Crude and adjusted prevalence rates of HTN were calculated. BP control was compared in HTN patients with and without ASCVD or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Their associations with cardiovascular diseases and cardiometabolic and renal factors were assessed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Adjusted prevalence rates of HTN diagnosed according to 140/90 and 130/90 criteria were 30.9% (32.9% male; 29.7% female) and 54.9% (63.2% male; 49.3% female), respectively. BP < 130/80 mmHg was achieved in 60.5% of HTN patients without ASCVD or CKD according to 140/90 criterion, and 65.5% according to 130/80 criterion. This BP-control was achieved in 70% of HTN patients with ASCVD and 71% with CKD, according to both criteria. Coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, diabetes, prediabetes, low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hyperuricemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, overweight, and increased waist-to-height ratio were independently associated with HTN according to both criteria. Conclusions: Almost a third of the adult population has HTN according to the 140/90 criterion, and more than half according to the 130/90 criterion, with a higher prevalence in men. The main clinical conditions associated with HTN were heart failure, diabetes, CHD, low eGFR, and obesity.

Keywords: arterial hypertension; blood pressure control; cardiovascular diseases; cardiovascular risk factors; prevalence.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Atherosclerosis* / complications
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Coronary Disease*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Heart Failure* / complications
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Male
  • Obesity / complications
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Risk Factors

Grants and funding

Funding for the SIMETAP Study (Grant code: 05/2010RS) was approved in accordance with Order 472/2010, dated September 16, of the Regional Ministry of Health (RMoH), approving regulatory bases and the call for grants for the year 2010 from the “Pedro Laín Entralgo” Agency for Training, Research, and Healthcare Studies of the Community of Madrid, for the execution of research projects in the field of health outcomes in Primary Care. The researchers, members of the Scientific Committee, and principal investigator have not received any remuneration for participating in the SIMETAP study.