Current and Novel Therapies for Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Oct 13;24(20):15165. doi: 10.3390/ijms242015165.


Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are an emerging group of pathological entities characterized by an eosinophil-predominant infiltration of different tracts of the gut in the absence of secondary causes of eosinophilia. According to the specific tract of the gut involved, EGIDs can be classified into eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EoG), eosinophilic enteritis (EoN), and eosinophilic colitis (EoC). The epidemiology of EGIDs is evolving rapidly. EoE, once considered a rare disease, now has an incidence and prevalence of 7.7 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants per years and 34.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year, respectively. Fewer data are available regarding non-EoE EGIDs, whose prevalence are estimated to range between 2.1 and 17.6 in 100,000 individuals, depending on age, sex, and ethnicity. Diagnosis requires the presence of suggestive symptoms, endoscopic biopsies showing abnormal values of eosinophils infiltrating the gut, and exclusion of secondary causes of eosinophilia. EoE typically presents with dysphagia and episodes of food bolus impactions, while EoG, EoN, and EoC may all present with abdominal pain and diarrhea, with or without other non-specific symptoms. In addition, although different EGIDs are currently classified as different entities, there may be overlap between different diseases in the same patient. Despite EGIDs being relatively novel pathological entities, the research on possible treatments is rapidly growing. In this regard, several randomized controlled trials are currently ongoing to investigate novel molecules, including ad-hoc steroid formulations, immunosuppressants, and mostly monoclonal antibodies that target the specific molecular mediators of EGIDs. This narrative review provides an up-to-date overview of available and investigational drugs for different EGIDs.

Keywords: colitis; dupilumab; eosinophils; esophagitis; gastritis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Enteritis* / diagnosis
  • Enteritis* / drug therapy
  • Enteritis* / epidemiology
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis* / diagnosis
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis* / drug therapy
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis* / epidemiology
  • Eosinophils
  • Gastritis* / diagnosis
  • Gastritis* / drug therapy
  • Gastritis* / epidemiology
  • Humans

Supplementary concepts

  • Eosinophilic enteropathy

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.