Inflammation, Autoimmunity and Neurodegenerative Diseases, Therapeutics and Beyond

Curr Neuropharmacol. 2024;22(6):1080-1109. doi: 10.2174/1570159X22666231017141636.


Neurodegenerative disease (ND) incidence has recently increased due to improved life expectancy. Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most prevalent NDs. Both diseases are poly genetic, multifactorial and heterogenous. Preventive medicine, a healthy diet, exercise, and controlling comorbidities may delay the onset. After the diseases are diagnosed, therapy is needed to slow progression. Recent studies show that local, peripheral and age-related inflammation accelerates NDs' onset and progression. Patients with autoimmune disorders like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) could be at higher risk of developing AD or PD. However, no increase in ND incidence has been reported if the patients are adequately diagnosed and treated. Autoantibodies against abnormal tau, β amyloid and α- synuclein have been encountered in AD and PD and may be protective. This discovery led to the proposal of immune-based therapies for AD and PD involving monoclonal antibodies, immunization/ vaccines, pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibition and anti-inflammatory cytokine addition. All the different approaches have been analysed here. Future perspectives on new therapeutic strategies for both disorders are concisely examined.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease (AD); Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs); Parkinson's disease (PD); autoimmunity; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; tau; therapy; vaccines.; α-synuclein; β-amyloid.

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease* / drug therapy
  • Autoimmune Diseases*
  • Autoimmunity
  • Cytokines
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases* / therapy
  • Parkinson Disease* / drug therapy
  • alpha-Synuclein


  • alpha-Synuclein
  • Cytokines