Radiotherapy (RT) plays an important role in tumor therapy due to its noninvasiveness and wide adaptation. In recent years, radiation therapy has been discovered to induce an anti-tumor immune response, which arouses widespread concern among scientists and clinicians. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the applications of nano-biomaterials for radiotherapy-activated immunotherapy. We first discuss the combination of different radiosensitizing nano-biomaterials and immune checkpoint inhibitors to enhance tumor immune response and improve radiotherapy efficacy. Subsequently, various nano-biomaterials-enabled tumor oxygenation strategies are introduced to alleviate the hypoxic tumor environment and amplify the immunomodulatory effect. With the aid of nano-vaccines and adjuvants, radiotherapy refreshes the host's immune system. Additionally, ionizing radiation responsive nano-biomaterials raise innate immunity-mediated anti-tumor immunity. At last, we summarize the rapid development of immune modulatable nano-biomaterials and discuss the key challenge in the development of nano-biomaterials for tumor radio-immunotherapy. Understanding the nano-biomaterials-assisted radio-immunotherapy will maximize the benefits of clinical radiotherapy and immunotherapy and facilitate the development of new combinational therapy modality.
Keywords: Immunotherapy; Nano-biomaterials; Radio-immunotherapy; Radiotherapy; Tumor.
© 2023. The Author(s).