Pathogenesis and prognosis of intrarenal reflux

Folia Med Cracov. 2023 Jul 30;63(2):57-64. doi: 10.24425/fmc.2023.145913.


Scar development in the children's renal cortex with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most important parameters of prognosis. It can develop regardless of the chosen treatment, even after the regression of VUR. The shape of the renal papillae, the ascending urinary tract infection, the greater than third-degree VUR, and finally the increased intra-calyceal pressure, induce the formation of renal scarring in the renal parenchyma. Renal scarring may complicate VUR independently of the therapeutic strategy (conservative or operative) and its regression. For restitution of this entity, many scientific terms have been used and the most common of them is intrarenal reflux (IRR). The effects of VUR on future renal function result from the limited ability of the affected kidney to grow (failure of renal growth) due to the existence of scars in the renal cortex, the worsening of these scars, or finally the creation of new scars. With the present study, we intend to clarify the etiology and the pathophysiology of IRR and the relation of VUR prognosis to newer biomarkers such as N-acetyl-beta-glycosaminidase, beta-2 microglobulin, Pen- traxin- 3 and Liver-type fatty-acid-binding protein.

Keywords: Liver-type fatty-acid-binding protein; N-acetyl-beta-glycosaminidase; Pentraxin 3; beta 2 microglobulin; intrarenal reflux; renal papillae; renal scar; vesicoureteral reflux.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Cicatrix / complications
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Kidney
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Urinary Tract Infections* / complications
  • Urinary Tract Infections* / pathology
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux* / complications
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux* / diagnosis