Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated optic neuritis in a post-COVID-19 infection patient

Immun Inflamm Dis. 2023 Oct;11(10):e1051. doi: 10.1002/iid3.1051.

Abstract

Purpose: SARS-CoV-2 viral infection affects multiple systems including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiac, and ophthalmic systems. We report a case of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) related optic neuritis in a SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patient.

Methods: Case report.

Results: A 36-year-old Malay gentleman with underlying hypertension presented with the first episode of bilateral progressively worsening blurred vision for 1 week associated with retrobulbar pain. There were no other neurological symptoms. He had fever a week before the eye symptoms and tested positive for COVID-19. He received COVID-19 booster vaccine a month before the disease onset. On examination, his vision was hand motion on right eye and 6/18 on left eye. Relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) was positive on right eye with abnormal optic nerve function tests. Anterior segments were unremarkable. Fundus examination showed bilateral optic disc swelling. MRI revealed multifocal hyperintense subcortical white matter lesions. Optic nerves appeared normal with no enhancement seen. Blood investigation showed a positive serum MOG antibody. Intravenous methylprednisolone was commenced followed by oral prednisolone after which his vision and ocular symptoms markedly improved. The oral prednisolone was tapered alongside addition of azathioprine. At 1 month, the disease was stable with no recurrence.

Conclusion: While optic neuritis has been associated with both COVID-19 infection and vaccination, MOG IgG antibody-mediated optic neuritis is also a possible manifestation. This type of optic neuritis associated with COVID-19 infection does not show a similar pattern of frequent recurrences as seen in non-COVID-19 related optic neuritis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Letter

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Autoantibodies
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methylprednisolone
  • Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein
  • Optic Neuritis* / diagnosis
  • Optic Neuritis* / drug therapy
  • Optic Neuritis* / etiology
  • SARS-CoV-2

Substances

  • Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein
  • Autoantibodies
  • Methylprednisolone