The Relationship between the Presence of Cardiohepatic Syndrome and Mortality in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2023 Oct 31. doi: 10.5543/tkda.2023.25477. Online ahead of print.


Objective: Heart failure (HF) is a major health burden that commonly affects liver function. Therefore, cardiohepatic syndrome (CHS) has been defined to describe the relationship between the heart and the liver. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of CHS on long-term mortality in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods: Patients followed at the outpatient HF clinic of our hospital with HFrEF between 2010 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. CHS was defined as elevation of at least two of three cholestasis parameters (total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase) above the upper limit of normal. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of CHS. The endpoint was all-cause mortality. Patients were followed up for a median of 4.4 (3.3-5.9) years.

Results: A total of 469 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the group was 52.2 ± 11.9 years and 75.5% of the patients were males. About 22.4% (n = 105) of the patients had CHS. Patients with CHS were older and had more comorbidities than patients without CHS. Furthermore, significantly worse left and right ventricular functions were observed in CHS (+) group. All-cause mortality was significantly higher in CHS (+) group (61.9% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of CHS (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 2.09-4.07, P < 0.001) as an independent predictor of long-term mortality.

Conclusion: The presence of CHS is associated with increased long-term mortality in outpatients with HFrEF. As an easy parameter to assess from routine laboratory parameters, CHS should be used to evaluate the long-term prognosis of patients with HFrEF.