Risk factors for stroke-related functional disability and mortality at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia

BMC Neurol. 2023 Oct 31;23(1):393. doi: 10.1186/s12883-023-03444-8.


Background: Stroke is one of the top causes of functional disability around the world. The main objective was to identify stroke-related functional outcomes and risk factors. A good functional outcome is defined as the absence of problems secondary to the stroke event, a poor functional outcome as the presence of complications, and mortality as the existence of complications.

Method: A retrospective cohort analysis was used to observe factors in 298 eligible adult (18 or older) stroke patients who attend outpatient clinics every three months at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital between September 2019 and August 2021 to predict outcomes.

Result: The likelihood of dying from a poor outcome was 9%, and the likelihood of recovering was 24%. The average time spent on good and poor outcomes for different levels of independent variables varies according to their risk. During the first three years of follow-up, the instantaneous risk with a 95% confidence interval of transitioning from good to poor outcome in the women, aged 60 or older, with hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and hemorrhage stroke versus men stroke patients, aged 18 to 59, without hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and ischemic stroke were 1.54 (1.10, 2.15), 1.73 (1.19, 2.52), 2.34 (1.55, 3.53), 2.74 (1.64, 4.56), and 1.52 (1.10, 2.19) respectively. The hazard ratio of transitioning from poor outcome to death for patients with diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation versus those without diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation was estimated to be 1.95 (1.10, 3.46) and 3.39 (1.67, 6.89), respectively.

Conclusion: Women over 60 with hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and hemorrhagic stroke were more likely to progress from a good to a poor outcome. Diabetes and atrial fibrillation were also risk factors for progressing from a poor outcome to death. The states and transitions, as well as a clinical control of the hazards for the transition through states, should improve the physician's decision-making process. Since gender and age are difficult to control, early intervention by patients and the hospital may be critical in influencing functional outcomes.

Keywords: Hazard ratio; Instantaneous risk; Transition.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anticoagulants
  • Atrial Fibrillation* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Ethiopia / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke* / complications


  • Anticoagulants