Experience of Induced Lactation in a Transgender Woman: Analysis of Human Milk and a Suggested Protocol

Breastfeed Med. 2023 Nov;18(11):888-893. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2023.0197. Epub 2023 Nov 1.


Background: A growing number of diverse familial structures wish to colactate their infant. For transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals, chestfeeding or breastfeeding may be within their goals of parenthood. There is limited evidence on how to induce lactation for a nongestational parent on gender affirming estrogen treatment. Case Presentation: We report the case of a transgender woman who successfully underwent lactation induction following a protocol using the galactogue domperidone plus use of a breast pump. The patient had modifications to her hormone therapy with estrogen and progesterone while remaining on antiandrogen therapy with spironolactone. A description of the protocol, medications, laboratory monitoring, human milk analysis including macronutrients, oligosaccharides, and hormones is presented. Discussion: This is the fourth case to date known in the literature of a transgender woman with successful lactation induction, and the third case to remain on antiandrogen therapy during this process. Our report is the second to demonstrate comparable macronutrients, and the first to report on human milk oligosaccharides and hormones in induced milk compared with term human milk of a gestational parent. Conclusions: The opportunity to chestfeed or breastfeed an infant can be profound for many parents. Further research is needed to meet the needs of TGD individuals who wish to induce lactation as part of their parental goals.

Keywords: breastfeeding; human milk oligosaccharides; lactation induction; milk macronutrients; transgender.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Breast Feeding
  • Estrogens
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Lactation
  • Male
  • Milk, Human*
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Transgender Persons*


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Estrogens
  • Oligosaccharides