HOMA-IR and the Matsuda Index as predictors of progression to type 1 diabetes in autoantibody-positive relatives

Diabetologia. 2024 Feb;67(2):290-300. doi: 10.1007/s00125-023-06034-y. Epub 2023 Nov 2.


Aim/hypothesis: We assessed whether HOMA-IR and the Matsuda Index are associated with transitions through stages of type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Autoantibody (AAb)-positive relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes (n=6256) from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention were studied. Associations of indicators of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda Index) with BMI percentile (BMIp) and age were assessed with adjustments for measures of insulin secretion, Index60 and insulinogenic index (IGI). Cox regression was used to determine if tertiles of HOMA-IR and Matsuda Index predicted transitions from Not Staged (<2 AAbs) to Stage 1 (≥2 AAbs and normoglycaemia), from Stage 1 to Stage 2 (≥2 AAbs with dysglycaemia), and progression to Stage 3 (diabetes as defined by WHO/ADA criteria).

Results: There were strong associations of HOMA-IR (positive) and Matsuda Index (inverse) with baseline age and BMIp (p<0.0001). After adjustments for Index60, transitioning from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was associated with higher HOMA-IR and lower Matsuda Index (HOMA-IR: HR=1.71, p<0.0001; Matsuda Index, HR=0.40, p<0.0001), as with progressing from Stages 1 or 2 to Stage 3 (HOMA-IR: HR=1.98, p<0.0001; Matsuda Index: HR=0.46, p<0.0001). Without adjustments, associations of progression to Stage 3 were inverse for HOMA-IR and positive for Matsuda Index, opposite in directionality with adjustments. When IGI was used in place of Index60, the findings were similar.

Conclusions/interpretation: Progression to Stages 2 and 3 of type 1 diabetes increases with HOMA-IR and decreases with the Matsuda Index after adjustments for insulin secretion. Indicators of insulin secretion appear helpful for interpreting associations of progression to type 1 diabetes with HOMA-IR or the Matsuda Index in AAb-positive relatives.

Keywords: HOMA; Insulin resistance; Insulin sensitivity; Progression of type 1 diabetes; Stage 3; Type 1 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Insulin Secretion


  • Insulin
  • Autoantibodies
  • Blood Glucose